Last weekend I attended a pig butchery demo by The Piggery hosted by Jimmy's no. 43. The Piggery is an heirloom, pastured pig farm that sells their meat at farmers markets and through several CSAs in New York State. The farmers, Heather and Brad, butchered a quarter hog. Don't worry, the animal wasn't alive, and all of the internal organs were already removed.
Brad started the demo by removing the leaf lard, the fat that cushions the pig's kidneys and other internal organs. Then he separated the hind leg, or the ham. He pointed out the concave area that defines the separation between the ham and the rest of the body. Next Brad separated the front leg, or shoulder, from the carcass. He then split that into the Boston butt and picnic roast.
Now all that was left was the center of the animal, which includes such choice cuts as the pork belly, chops, ribs, and tenderloin. The tenderloin is the most expensive cut because there is so little of it on the animal. For example, this 230 pound pig only had about 1.5 pounds of tenderloin. Brad separated each chop individually, cutting carefully around the bones. He trimmed each chop of the fat to use in rendering lard or making sausage.